Why females are choosier than males?

We find that in every species in the Earth, females are choosy while selecting their mates. This is because nature has entrusted females with the ability of creation and she must ensure that only the best gets to spread their genes to the future generation. This also corroborates with the Theory of Natural Selection and Survival of the fittest as propounded by Darwin and Spencer respectively. By ensuring that only the fittest male gets to transfer their genes to the future generation, females are ensuring Natural Selection of the fittest.

One of the reasons that the females are choosier than males is because of the huge investment she gives in the reproductive process. Females typically produce significantly fewer gametes (eggs) than males and invest heavily in each one. On the other hand, males produce many gametes (sperm) and invest little into each one. Females gametes, i.e, eggs are limited, while male gametes, i.e, sperms are plentiful. Hence females has to choose the healthiest males with desirable traits to fertilise her precious eggs. Also in case of internal fertilisation, she has to carry the egg inside her body through the gestation period. So its a huge investment on her part, and so she ought to be choosier than males.

Competition among males for access to females can take many forms, depending on the species and its particular mating system. Here are a few types of competition that are commonly observed in many species:

1) Physical confrontations:

In many species, males compete for access to females through physical confrontations, such as fights or battles. This type of competition is common in species where males are larger or stronger than females, and where access to mates is limited.

Examples: Male antelopes engage in physical battles to establish dominance and secure access to females. Male elk use antler battles and physical confrontations to fend off rivals and establish dominance during the breeding season.

Male Elks compete for females through physical confrontation

2) Courtship displays:

In many species, males engage in elaborate courtship displays to attract females. This may involve vocalizations, colorful displays, or other behaviors designed to demonstrate the male’s fitness or desirability as a mate.

Examples: Male birds of paradise engage in elaborate courtship displays, such as feather displays or vocalizations, to attract females. Male peacocks spread their colorful tail feathers to attract mates, and males with the most impressive displays are more likely to be successful in attracting a mate.

Male birds of paradise impresses females through their colourful plumage and dancing skills

3) Territorial defense:

In some species, males establish territories and defend them against rival males. This allows the dominant male to secure access to a group of females, and to fend off rivals who may attempt to mate with those females.

Examples: Male lions establish territories and defend them against rival males. This allows the dominant male to secure access to a group of females and to fend off rivals who may attempt to mate with those females. Male gorillas also establish territories and use aggressive behavior to defend them against rival males.

Male lions fight among themselves to establish their territory

4) Sperm competition:

In species where females mate with multiple partners, males may compete for access to females through sperm competition. This involves the production of large numbers of high-quality sperm, or the use of other strategies designed to increase the chances of fertilization.

Examples: Male fruit flies produce large numbers of high-quality sperm to increase their chances of fertilizing the eggs of multiple partners. Male primates also engage in sperm competition, with some species producing large amounts of sperm to increase their chances of fertilization.

5) Resource acquisition:

In some species, males compete for access to resources that are attractive to females, such as food or territory. By acquiring these resources, the male is able to attract and retain a mate.

Examples: Male birds, such as bowerbirds, construct elaborate nests or bowers to attract females. The males that construct the most impressive bowers are more likely to attract a mate. In some species of fish, males may compete for access to resources such as territory or food, which can increase their chances of attracting and retaining a mate.

In Bower Bird, males makes nests to impress females

Nature has entrusted females with greater biological role than men. Hence, nature has also provided women with power to choose their partner. However, there are certain exceptions where we see female competition instead, like in Spotten Hyenas, Elephant seals and African Savannah Elephants. In all, the power to choose or Sexual Selection is an effective check and balance put up by the nature to ensure the Survival of the fittest.

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